THE PARASITE BROOMRAPE (OROBANCHE CUMANA) IN SUNFLOWER – IDENTIFYING SOURCES FOR GENETIC RESISTANCE

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Gabriel Florin ANTON, Maria JOITA-PACUREANU, Călina Petruţa CORNEA

Sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) is causing a great deal of damage to sunflower production in many countries in Europe as well as in countries from Asia and in Australia. Extensive research on sunflower resistance to broomrape has been conducted in Russia, Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey, Serbia and Spain. New races of the parasite appear frequently. Sunflower breeders have been trying to develop sunflower genotypes resistant to all known races of this parasite. In our research work regarding resistance to broomrape we have used different sources of resistance, the best ones being the sunflower wild species. For obtaining results presented in this paper there have been used six cultivated sunflower genotypes which were crossed with two sunflower wild species, in order to obtain some populations. These populations are used for obtaining sunflower inbred lines which can to be used as sources of resistance (donor of genes) or directly to obtain hybrids. There have been studied the interspecific hybrids as well as the parental forms, for the number of released seeds, for oil content, one thousand seed weight and resistance to different populations of broomrape parasite, in the artificial and natural infestation conditions. We identified some populations full resistant to the most virulent races of broomrape in sunflower crop in Romania.

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ANTON G.F.,JOITA-PACUREANU M., CORNEA C.P. 2016, THE PARASITE BROOMRAPE (OROBANCHE CUMANA) IN SUNFLOWER – IDENTIFYING SOURCES FOR GENETIC RESISTANCE. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 11-17.

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TOTAL PHENOLIC ANALYSIS, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME MUSHROOM TINCTURES FROM MEDICINAL AND EDIBLE SPECIES, BY IN VITRO AND IN VIVO TESTS

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI
Written by Emanuel VAMANU, Alina VOICA

Wild mushrooms are commonly used in various pathologies. However, there are few studies concerning species characteristics from different geographical areas. The aim of the study was to determine the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of 17 triple tinctures prepared from 9 species of mushrooms with medicinal potential, harvested from the region of Moldova, Romania. The study was conducted in parallel with seven commercial species by in vitro studies (DPPH and ABTS scavenging and chelating activities) and in vivo (antioxidant activity by using Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast strain). A direct correlation of in vitro antioxidant activity to that expressed in vivo was determined in the case of a high content of phenolic compounds. Tincture prepared from Hericium coralloides presented the lowest antiradical capacity. A correlation between the different in vitro antioxidant activities was determined for the Tuber indicum and Piptoporus betulinus species. Tinctures which have a high degree of protection against oxidative action of H2O2 had a medium value of EC50 < 1 mg/mL. The results obtained proved that certain compounds identified in trace amounts may significantly increase the biological effect, as the protocol for tinctures obtaining directly influenced the response and content expressed in vitro and in vivo.

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VAMANU E., VOICA A. 2017, TOTAL PHENOLIC ANALYSIS, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME MUSHROOM TINCTURES FROM MEDICINAL AND EDIBLE SPECIES, BY IN VITRO AND IN VIVO TESTS. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI, ISSN 2285-1364, 318-324.

USING CENTRIFUGE AND ULTRAFILTRATION AS DOWNSTREAM PROCESSES FOR THE CONCENTRATION OF MICROBIAL β-MANNANASE FERMENTATION MEDIA

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI
Written by Ercan YATMAZ, Irfan TURHAN, Mustafa GERMEC, Ercan KARAHALIL

Enzymes are protein-based catalyzers which organize the specific chemical reactions. Therefore, they could be used for lots of industrial applications. For the industrial grade, enzymes were extracted by different physical or chemical methods from the plant or animal tissues formerly. But these techniques are very hard to apply and provide enough enzymes for the industry. The production of the microbial enzymes could be done by a series of operations, which can be divided into two groups (upstream and downstream processes). Production of bulk or partial concentrated enzyme solutions are easier than the production of pure enzyme extracts. In this study, the effects of centrifuge and ultrafiltration on the production of concentrated β-mannanase enzyme extract from fermented carob pod medium by recombinant Aspergillus sojae were investigated. For this purpose, combination of time (5, 10, and 15 min) and speed (7000, 10000, and 15000 rpm) were tested for centrifuge assays. Then, ultrafiltration processes were performed with 10kDa and 30kDa membranes by using 1000 ml fermented media. Because the enzyme molecular weight was 50-60 kDa. Results showed that the centrifuge was not statistically important at β-mannanase enzyme purification in carob medium in point of enzyme activity. But both ultrafiltration membranes were help to improve the specific enzyme activity from 2176.65 U/mg (initial) to 2582.92 U/mg for 10kDa and 2718.89 U/mg for 30kDa (p<0.05). It was obviously seen from the results that 100ml concentrated enzyme extract was collected from the retentate.

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YATMAZ E., TURHAN I., GERMEC M., KARAHALIL E. 2017, USING CENTRIFUGE AND ULTRAFILTRATION AS DOWNSTREAM PROCESSES FOR THE CONCENTRATION OF MICROBIAL β-MANNANASE FERMENTATION MEDIA. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI, ISSN 2285-1364, 133-136.

VALIDATION OF RT-QPCR TECHNIQUE FOR DETECTION OF BRUCELLA GENOME IN MILK SHEEP AND GOAT IN WEST BANK PART OF PALESTINE

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Elena AWWAD, Mohammad FARRAJ, Tamer ESSAWI, Israr SABRI, Kamel ADWAN, Issa RUMI, Assad MANASRA, Stelian BARAITAREANU, Maria Rodica GURAU, Doina DANES

Brucella melitensis is a severe pathogen for human and animals, even at low concentrations. The milk of sheep and goat and the fresh dairy products, including white cheese, are the main source of consumers’ contamination. Early detection, using reliable validated diagnostic tools, is crucial for the control and eradication of the disease. The aim of this study was to develop fast molecular in-house techniques, such as RT-qPCR, to detect Brucella genome in milk. The validation of the method was carried out according to the specifications of the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals of the World Organization for Animal Health OIE in chapter 1.1.5: Validation and quality control of polymerase chain reaction methods used for diagnostic of infection disease and with the requests of the ISO/IEC 17025:2005: General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. Tests for the RT-qPCR validation have proved his ability to detect 3.4 copies of Brucella's genome, into 5μl amplification product. Furthermore, DNA from non-Brucella microorganisms was not detected by developed method. While the identification of Brucella melitensis by traditional methods is time-consuming and may impair the outbreaks control, the RT-qPCR proposed can be used as a complementary, rapid and sensitive diagnostic tool for Brucella spp in Palestine, contributing to properly implement the control policy of authorities.

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AWWAD E., FARRAJ M., ESSAWI T., SABRI I., ADWAN K., RUMI I., MANASRA A., BARAITAREANU S., GURAU M.R., DANES D. 2016, VALIDATION OF RT-QPCR TECHNIQUE FOR DETECTION OF BRUCELLA GENOME IN MILK SHEEP AND GOAT IN WEST BANK PART OF PALESTINE. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 321-328.

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VARIABILITY OF COLEOPTILE LENGTH IN MUTANT/RECOMBINANT WHEAT DH (DOUBLED HAPLOID) LINES

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI
Written by Steliana Paula BARBU, Gabriela ŞERBAN, Călina Petruţa CORNEA, Aurel GIURA

Most of the modern wheat cultivars carry GA (gibberellic acid) insensitive height reducing gene, Rht-B1b, that reduces stem elongation but improves yield potential, lodging resistance and increased harvest index. Recent cultivars released in Romania are semi-dwarf, carrying the Rht-B1b allele which confers an advantage in excessive temperate environmental conditions. However, such cultivars are characterized as having short coleoptile that influences stand establishment and seedling vigor, especially in dry autumns. Genotypes carrying Rht gene-alleles can contribute to increasing coleoptile length, and having semi-dwarf characteristics can be used as sources in advanced breeding programs. A set of 86 mutant/recombinant wheat doubled haploid (DH) lines, was obtained through a complex protocol including two genotypes, two irradiation cycles with gamma rays (200Gy, 100Gy), direct and reciprocal hybridization, rapidly homozygosity attained by using Zea system. This study was aiming to explore the genetic variability for the coleoptile length and plant height, produced by mutagenesis and recombination, in the selected 86 mutant/recombinant DH lines, and compared to the parents. The analyses performed in this study, reveal that are lines which registered a longer coleoptile than parents, and also one line was highlighted for a semi-dwarf stature and a long coleoptile, that can be used in wheat breeding programs.

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BARBU S.P., ŞERBAN G., CORNEA C.P., GIURA A. 2017, VARIABILITY OF COLEOPTILE LENGTH IN MUTANT/RECOMBINANT WHEAT DH (DOUBLED HAPLOID) LINES. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI, ISSN 2285-1364, 91-95.

VEGETABLE OIL CONVERSION INTO CORE-SHELL BIOPRODUCTS FOR STORED GRAIN PROTECTION

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Mariana POPESCU, Florin OANCEA, Mălina DEȘLIU-AVRAM

The paper presented a possibility for the eco-efficient valorisation of vegetable oils, a precious renewable natural resource from Romanian wild and cultivated flora, cheap and abundant raw materials for conversion into value added bioproducts for plant protection in organic agriculture systems and great importance for bioeconomy. An original technical solution was proposed for the stored grains protection against pests and diseases transferred from agricultural field to warehouses after the harvest time. Based on the validated properties of insecticidal diatomaceous earth and antimicrobial essential oils extracted from aromatic plants, an eco-friendly bioproduct was conceived and produced using a clean technology of green chemistry inspired by cold saponification process of natural fats followed by the microencapsulation of the essential oil in the soft potassium soap. One variant of the plant protection bioproduct was obtained by conversion of cold pressed rapeseed oil and essential thyme oil into a core-shell formulation obtained by granulation of the concentrated oil emulsion with fine powdered diatomaceous earth thus improving the controlled release of bioactive principles from the organomineral structure. The significant repellence potential against Sitophilus granaries insect adults and strong fungicidal action of thyme essential oil coupled with insecticidal effects and mycotoxin absorbent capacity of diatomite recommended the new product with a wide spectrum of action for a long preventive protection against biological contamination of warehouses.

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POPESCU M., OANCEA F., DEȘLIU-AVRAM M. 2016, VEGETABLE OIL CONVERSION INTO CORE-SHELL BIOPRODUCTS FOR STORED GRAIN PROTECTION. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 210-213.

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WHY HARMONIZE FOOD REGULATIONS AND WHAT IS NEEDED TO MAKE IT WORK?

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI
Written by Huub LELIEVELD

Regrettably after decades of negotiations between countries and supranational organizations, there are still too many differences that hamper movement of safe food across borders and hamper innovations and it does not look like the differences will disappear soon. Therefore, where possible, serious scientists should continue to work together to provide scientifically correct evidence that may be used as tools by stakeholders to try influence negotiations and to try convince local authorities that harmonization is in the interest of everybody. To make it work in practice requires that those who need to know and that means most people, at all levels, understand the scientific evidence. Not only large companies are affected by unjustified differences in regulations, but also small companies and street vendors and ultimately all consumers, who in many countries have a democratic vote and thus are influential. In turn this makes it necessary that the science is translated in a language that those who need to know understand. The Global Harmonization Initiative therefore not only tries to find consensus on scientific issues, but also seeks means to make the findings understood by everybody, requiring simplification, but without losing the true scientific facts, and translation into local languages. Then having the results published in scientific journals, popular scientific magazines, newspapers and magazines aimed at the general public. Another crucial aspect is that those who do the negotiations understand what they are talking about, because expressions used in regulations and during negotiations tend to have – often vastly - different meanings in different countries or regions.

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LELIEVELD H. 2017, WHY HARMONIZE FOOD REGULATIONS AND WHAT IS NEEDED TO MAKE IT WORK?. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI, ISSN 2285-1364, 289-307.


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