ISSN 2285-1364, ISSN CD-ROM 2285-5521, ISSN ONLINE 2285-1372, ISSN-L 2285-1364
 

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXIII
Written by Faika YARALI KARAKAN

Allium tuncelianum (Kollman) Ozhatay, Matthew, Siraneci is an endemic plant species only grown in Turkey. Unlike common garlic, it has only one clove bulb and it can also produce fertile flowers and seeds. Due to the similarity of its flavor and taste to Allium sativum, it is called ʻtunceli garlicʼ and ʻovacik garlicʼ in the region. In recent years, the amount of consumption has increased due to revealing the benefits of biochemical content to human health. For this reason, Allium tuncelianum has been collected from nature for domestic and medical purpose by herbalists and local people. So, it is in danger of extinction due to unconscious and over-exploitation from the nature. In recent years, different strategies have been developed to protect Allium tuncelianum from destruction. Germination problems of its seeds have led researchers to use in vitro techniques. These studies focus to develop an efficient protocol for propagation and conservation of this endemic species. In this review, in vitro studies on Allium tuncelianum were evaluated.

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Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXIII
Written by Elena UNGUREANU, Gabriel MUSTĂȚEA, Mona Elena POPA

Food contamination during the migration process from food contact materials is an important food safety issue and many researches are focused on this topic in the last decades. Bisphenol A is a hazardous chemical compound used as intermediate in the production of polycarbonate-based materials and epoxy resins, used to obtain plastic food containers for packaging and storage, but also for inner surface coatings of cans. Through contaminated products, this compound can reach the human body where it causes a number of adverse health effects. As a result of this consumption, Bisphenol A can cause diseases of the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, reproductive system, metabolic system. The aim of this review was to investigate Bisphenol A levels from worldwide fruits and fruits products, fresh or processed, packed in different food contact materials. Despite the fact that the values found in the literature are not high, it poses a risk to human health because it can accumulate in the body. To prevent this hazard, the European Food Safety Authority recommended a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 50 μg/kg body weight/day. As a conclusion the authors try to investigate differences between canned and non-canned fruit products and to establish which material can leach more Bisphenol A and what factors influence this process.

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Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXIII
Written by Adina Lia LONGODOR, Vioara MIREŞAN, Răzvan A. CODEA, Camelia RĂDUCU, Luisa ANDRONIE, Zamfir MARCHIȘ, Igori BALTA, Codruţa MARIŞ, Aurelia COROIAN

Donkey milk is used as an alternative source in the diet of young children and newborns due to the similar composition to breast milk. The donkey milk is considered to be a functional food by the chemical composition it presents, thus being beneficial in the nutrition of people suffering from food allergies. The chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of the donkey milk are significantly influenced by lactation and also by the lactation period. Donkey milk has a low fat content compared to other species and high lactose content. These parameters are influenced by the variables such as: lactation, animal age, and feeding. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of lactation on the antioxidant capacity and physicochemical compounds in the donkey milk.

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Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXIII
Written by Luziana HOXHA, Renata KONGOLI

Application of hurdle technology even more is getting a special attention from food scientist and producers, due to its economical convenience, simplicity and flexibility in use. In Albania fig fruit is widespread, usually sold in summer in local markets as fresh fruit, and during the year could be found as dried figs, which is traditionally sun-dried, and a small amount is preserved with addition of sugar. A big challenge still facing rural areas in Albania is the lack of preservation methods and capacities, the high perishable nature of fig and the supply of local markets with imported fig products, which could lead in a stock creation of country produce. So the application of hurdle technology was the aim of this work, as a novel approach to new dietary dried fig-based products development, with the attempt to minimize stock creation of dried figs produce, and market diversification with a range of products competing imported fig products. This study may serve as suggestions for further development of dried fig-based products, also may have an impact for rural areas development in Albania.

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Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXIII
Written by Gabriela ȚEȚU

The excessive and long-term accumulation of large amounts of redundant lignocellulose materials, as outcome wastes from the specific activities of all fruit tree farms across the whole country in Romania, has become a huge problem which needs to be solved by using biological means for their conversion into beneficial products. Thus, the main aim of this work was to solve this problem by recycling the fruit tree wastes through organic cultivation of two mushroom species, Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus. The fruit body productions of each one of these mushroom species registered the highest levels as 1,830 g for G. lucidum and 2,750 g for P. ostreatus, relative to 5 kg of substrates made of fruit tree wastes. According to these results, the suitable biotechnological procedures for recycling of apple, plum and cherry tree wastes through organic cultivation of mentioned mushroom species is presented in this paper.

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Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXIII
Written by Camelia RĂDUCU, Vioara MIREȘAN, Igori BALTA, Adina Lia LONGODOR, Ștefania MARIS, Aurelia COROIAN

Knowing the physico-chemical composition of the wine allows it to be authenticated and to detect the frauds that can be encountered in marketed wines. The physico-chemical analysis of wine is the basis for controlling and observing the technological flow of wine production. It is also necessary to evaluate the organoleptic characteristics of wine as there is a close link between the sensory characteristics and the chemical composition of the final product. The raw material and the harvest year significantly influence the final composition of the wine. The temperature and precipitations of the raw material harvest year significantly influence the chemical composition of the wine. Tartaric acid varies between 2.51 ± 0.05 and 2.82 ± 0.04 for red Merlot dry wines. The mean values for malic acid are between 1.01 ± 0.04 and 1.57 ± 0.03. The average citric acid values range from 0.19 ± 0.01 to 0.24 ± 0.01 for red Merlot dry wines. These values correspond to the average values reported by other authors in the literature. The purpose of this study was to characterize the content of tartaric, malic, citric and lactic acid in dry red Merlot wine, as well as sensory and physicochemical properties according to the year of production.

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Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXIII
Written by Alice GRIGORE, Svetlana COLCERU-MIHUL, Corina BUBUEANU, Lucia PÎRVU, Cristina BAZDOACĂ, Sultana NIŢĂ

The aim of this study was to obtain selective fractions of Hyssopus officinalis L. by different methods and to investigate a possible correlation between their chemical content and antioxidant activity in order to establish a potential effect of this species on counteracting diseases associated with aging processes. HPLC analysis and quantitative determination of active principles from nine selective fractions show that the values were well correlated with the ones resulted by spectrophotometrically methods. The selective fractions have a total flavonoid content expressed as rutin from 1.236 to 19.060 % and respectively 0.126 to 16.783% polyphenolcarboxylic acids expressed as rosmarinic acid. It has been observed that the fractions with high content in polyphenolcarboxylic acids and flavonosides exhibit maximum antioxidant activity. There are selective fractions containing only one of the classes of compounds (flavonosides or polyphenolcarboxylic acids) in a higher amount that show great antioxidant activity. A strictly correlation between the flavones content of the selective fractions and antioxidant activity can not be made by this method.

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Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXIII
Written by Monica ENACHE, Larisa ANGHEL

Food supplements are marketed in large numbers in Romania at present, they are the products of a dynamic and profitable industry. Bee pollen is a food supplement with variable composition and properties, reflecting the floral biodiversity used as a source. This product is collected for human use and at the same time it is indispensable for the survival of bee colonies. In the present work fresh bee pollen samples were obtained from two commercial sources in Bucharest (CS1 and CS2) and pellets were sorted by colour and analysed microscopically on unacetolised fresh mounts, one pellet at a time using an optical microscope (magnification 400×; 1000×). The colour of pollen pellets was variable, in the first sample (CS1) there were for example: white (Pinaceae – Pinus sp.), light yellow (Rosaceae – Malus sp.), lemon (Brassicaceae – Brassica sp.), orange (Asteraceae – Taraxacum officinale), firebrick (Geraniaceae – Geranium sp.) and black (Fabaceae – Trifolium pratense) pellets compared to the second sample (CS2) which contained only yellow and orange shades, for example: lemon (Brassicaceae – Brassica sp.), pale yellow (Cucurbitaceae – Cucumis sativus), orange (Asteraceae – Taraxacum officinale).

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Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXIII
Written by Oscar VICENTE, Monica BOSCAIU

The progressive salinisation of irrigated cropland is causing substantial losses in agricultural production, a problem that will worsen due to climate change effects. Enhancing crop salt tolerance is a sensible strategy to achieve significant increases in crop yields, but requires a deep understanding of the underlying mechanisms. When challenged by salinity, all plants, regardless of their degree of tolerance, activate a series of basic responses, including the control of ion transport, the synthesis of compatible solutes for osmotic adjustment, or the activation of antioxidant systems. Yet, for a given species, the biological relevance and the relative contribution of different responses to the mechanisms of salt tolerance remain largely unknown. Over the last years, we have performed comparative analyses on the responses to salinity in different taxa, genetically related but with varying levels of tolerance. Correlating salt-induced changes in the concentrations of suitable biochemical stress markers with the relative tolerance of the investigated species, we are obtaining novel and interesting information on those mechanisms. Some examples with taxa of several genera are discussed, to show the usefulness of our approach.

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Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXIII
Written by Agnes TOMA, Oana CRĂCIUNESCU, Rodica TATIA

Carrot juice is a product of interest in food industry. Pomace, a by-product of the carrot juice industry, contains a significant amount of pectin. This natural polymer is rich in galacturonic acid and is used as food additive due to its gelling, thickening and stabilizing properties. The objective of this study was to compare different extraction methods of carrot pectin. Sodium citrate buffer, pH 5.0 and carrot pulp were used for pectin extraction. Methods used to obtain pectin required temperature, microwaves, ultrasounds and Celluclast 1.5L enzyme treatment. The extraction yield of each method was determined. The obtained pectin was characterized by the content of galacturonic acid, the degree of esterification, the degree of emulsification and cytotoxicity in a fibroblast cell line. The enzymatically extracted carrot pectin contained at least 65% galacturonic acid and had a high degree of esterification and emulsification. In vitro cytotoxicity tests have demonstrated the biocompatibility of pectin extracts. The results of this study have showed that valuable carrot pectin with high content of galacturonic acid and good biocompatibility can be obtained from carrot pomace. The enzymatic extraction method could be further studied for various industrial applications, and the obtained carrot pectin could be useful especially in food supplements.

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