A REVIEW ON THE ENZYMATIC INDICATORS FOR MONITORING SOIL QUALITY

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI
Written by Maria-Mihaela MICUȚI, Liliana BĂDULESCU, Florentina ISRAEL-ROMING

Soil is a dynamic, living, natural system that is vital to the function of terrestrial ecosystems. Soil health is maintained by physical, chemical and biological factors. Physical factors include bulk density and soil porosity, indicators of soil compaction. Chemical factors (soil pH, inorganic nitrogen, available minerals and organic carbon content) provide information for the balance of soil solution and exchange sites. Biological and biochemical factors like microbial biomass, soil respiration, potentially mineralised nitrogen and activity of soil enzymes indicate the soil’s ability to function or recover from disturbance such as climate change, pest infestation, pollution and human exploitation in agriculture. The enzymes play an important role in the decomposition and recycling of nutrients from dead plants and animal tissues, the fixation of nitrogen, the maintenance of soil structure and the inhibiting effects of pollutants. Therefore, the activity of soil enzymes can be used as an indicator of soil quality. This review is focused on the activity of some defining soil enzymes like β-glucosidases, cellulases, amylases, phosphatases, ureases, dehydrogenases, arylsulfatases and peroxidases, their importance in maintaining the soil health and their sources (plants, animals, organic compounds and especially microorganisms).It also offers information on a variety of methods developed to measure enzymes activity which can give relative information about the ecological status of soils.

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MICUȚI M.M., BĂDULESCU L., ISRAEL-ROMING F. 2017, A REVIEW ON THE ENZYMATIC INDICATORS FOR MONITORING SOIL QUALITY. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI, ISSN 2285-1364, 223-228.

ACCELERATED MICROPROPAGATION OF ENDEMIC FRITILLARIA AUREA SCHOTT

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Suleyman KIZIL, Tahsin SOGUT, Ugur SESIZ, Khalid Mahmood KHAWAR

Fritillaria aurea Schott, an Iran-Turan element, is a rare alpine geophyte with spotted brown yellow flowers. The plant is endemic to Turkey with dispersion in the South-Eastern Anatolia region. This study reports in vitro culture of Fritillaria aurea previously collected from the provinces of Adiyaman and Malatya in the South-Eastern Anatolia Region and presently cultured at the Ornamental Plants Garden Collection of Faculty of Agriculture, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey. Bulblets were cultured on MS medium containing different concentrations of TDZ, TDZ andNAA. Callus induction followed by bulb formation was noted on bulblets. The bulblets obtained these were cultured on MS medium containing 40 or80 g/l sucrose to increase bulb diameter. The in vitro regenerated bulblets were rooted on MS medium containing different concentrations of IBA (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mg/l) supplemented with 30 g/l sucrose. A significant increase in number of bulblets and bulb diameter was noted on F. aurea Schott bulbs.

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KIZIL S., SOGUT T., SESIZ U., KHAWAR K.M. 2016, ACCELERATED MICROPROPAGATION OF ENDEMIC FRITILLARIA AUREA SCHOTT. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 99-104.

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ACHIEVEMENTS IN WINTER PEAS BREEDING PROGRAM

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI
Written by Ancuţa CRÎNGAŞU (BĂRBIERU)

The development of the winter pea crop represents a major challenge to expand plant protein production in temperate areas. Breeding winter cultivars requires the combination of freezing tolerance as well as high seed productivity and quality. In this paper we present data obtained from the F3 and F4 lines of winter peas from the four hybrid combinations (Specter/F95-927; F98-492/Windham; F95-927/CHECO; Specter/CHECO) obtained in theNARDIFundulea. A number of 121 lines (81 F3 lines and 40 F4 lines descendants from F3) selected from winter/winter and winter/spring crosses pea genotypes, have been tested in two years 2015 and 2016 in the field of NARDI Fundulea. At these lines were determined winter hardiness, earliness, yield and plant height comparing with the winter peas control (Specter, Checo and Windham). The results of this preliminary study suggested that it is possible in the breeding of winter peas to realize, in the same time, a genetic progress for high yield, good level of winter hardiness, plant height and earliness.

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CRÎNGAŞU (BĂRBIERU) A. 2017, ACHIEVEMENTS IN WINTER PEAS BREEDING PROGRAM. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI, ISSN 2285-1364, 72-76.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ACTIVE CARBON IN QuEChERS SAMPLE PREPARATION METHOD FOR PESTICIDE RESIDUES

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Vojislava BURSIĆ, Gorica VUKOVIĆ, Tijana ZEREMSKI, Dušan MARINKOVIĆ, Sonja GVOZDENAC, Aleksandra POPOVIĆ, Aleksandra PETROVIĆ

QuEChERS is an analytical method which simplifies the the sample preparation for pesticide residues. It is the result of the necessity to save the time for sample preparation, to reduce the amount of toxic organic solvents and thereby to contribute to the preservation of the environment. In order to obtain a higher recovery, thus making the analysis results more precise and representative, it is necessary during the extraction to pay particular attention to matrix components which can significantly affect the investigation results. In order to decrease the effect of the present components it is necessary to use the adequate substances – sorbents and to examine how their presence affects the validation parameter. The sour cherry extract, as an exceptionally pigmented matrix, needs the use of a sorbent with a strong affinity towards planar molecules thus causing its discoloration by removing the pigments from the extract. The most frequently used sorbents in QuEChERS method of extract purification are primary secondary amine (PSA), graphitized black carbon sorbent (GCB), C18 and Z-Sep sorbent (silicon dioxide coated by zirconium). The paper deals with a possibility of using active carbon (AC) as a possible sorbent which presents a form of carbon obtained in controlled oxidation processes having a porous structure with spacious active surface which enables it to adsorb a wide range of compounds and pollutants from the extract. By use of AC and QuChERS methods an exceptionally purified colorless extract is obtained. The obtained validation parameters point at a very low recovery of the studied pesticides which is a serious disadvantage of this sorbent while high correlation coefficients (R2>0.99) are obtained with irrelevant matrix effect in the linearity investigation process.

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BURSIĆ V., VUKOVIĆ G., ZEREMSKI T., MARINKOVIĆ D., GVOZDENAC S., POPOVIĆ A., PETROVIĆ A. 2016, ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ACTIVE CARBON IN QuEChERS SAMPLE PREPARATION METHOD FOR PESTICIDE RESIDUES. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 191-194.

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ALGAL OIL: A NOVEL SOURCE OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS FOR HUMAN NUTRITION

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Osman Kadir TOPUZ

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that belongs to the omega-3 fatty acids group. In recent years, omega-3 fatty acids rich oil has attracted much attention because of its recognized beneficial effect on human health. At present, fish oil is the major source of omega-3 fatty acids, but omega-3 fatty acids rich oils can be produced by microalgae with additional commercial benefits. Consumption of omega-3 rich fish oil has been steadily increasing for decades due to their health benefits. Microalgal oil might be the most promising alternative to fish oil, since they are the primary producers of omega-3 fatty acids. Recent advances regarding production of omega-3 fatty acid rich oil from microalgae have been reviewed with an emphasis on the scientific data. At first, description of the omega-3 fatty acids, biosynthesis pathways and their role in the human health is presented. Microalgae are the initial source of omega-3 fatty acids. Microalgae species intensively used in omega-3 fatty acids rich algal oil production and their culturing conditions were reviewed in this paper. The algal oil extraction and refining process are also presented. We present here a review of the most recent advances regarding the production of omega-3 fatty acid rich algal oil from the marine origin microalgae.

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TOPUZ O.K. 2016, ALGAL OIL: A NOVEL SOURCE OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS FOR HUMAN NUTRITION. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 178-183.

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AMOUNT OF DNA EXTRACTED FROM DIFFERENT TISSUES OF APPLE TREES IN SPRINGTIME CAN BE USED TO DESCRIBE THE LEVEL OF INFECTION

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Desareda MERO, Ariola BACU

Phytoplasma spread in apple trees in a systemic manner or in certain tissues. The unpredictable spreading complicates the definition of a single detection method and requires the use of alternative ones. In this paper are compared the results obtained in three plantations (Turan, Korce and Bitincke), regarding the amount of DNA extract from apples with results obtained from the use of the DAPI staining method for the detection of the infection from the leaves of the same trees. Sampling pool was 10 out of 100 trees which material from roots, stalks and wood were preserved in dark and cold conditions for 24 hours prior to DNA extraction. DNA was isolated from materials mentioned above and leaves were also analyzed by DAPI staining. The data about the amount of extracted DNA from each sample were used to compare the level of infection from different tissues categories and were related to the intensity of staining with DAPI. Results have indicated that the tissues with the highest presence of Phytoplasma spp. in springtime, based on the amount of detected DNA are stalks; and the collection of Korce has the higher level of infection from all analysed collections. At this collection all sampled categories of tissue are infected, meaning that there is a systemic spreading of the disease, compared to the other collections where infection is located only in certain tissues.

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MERO D., BACU A. 2016, AMOUNT OF DNA EXTRACTED FROM DIFFERENT TISSUES OF APPLE TREES IN SPRINGTIME CAN BE USED TO DESCRIBE THE LEVEL OF INFECTION. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 57-60.

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ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM Agrimonia eupatoria L. AND Epilobium hirsutum L. HERBA

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI
Written by Alina Ioana NICU, Lucia PÎRVU, Adrian VAMANU

Given the growing concern regarding bacterial resistance to antibiotics, it is important to investigate alternative antibacterial compounds, such as phenols and flavones from natural sources. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of two indigenous medicinal plants from Romania against some Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Ethanolic extracts (70% v/v) from the aerial parts of Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Epilobium hirsutum L. were obtained, their total phenols content was determined using Folic-Ciocalteau assay as it is described by the Romanian Pharmacopoeia. The qualitative assay of the two ethanolic extracts was done by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and their antibacterial activity was assessed using the agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration determination against four pathogenic bacteria: Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228. Our results showed that both extract contain caffeic acid and some of its derivatives, however the flavones content differs: while A. eupatoria contains several quercetin and luteolin derivatives, E. hirsutum is rich in myricetin derivatives. The antibacterial activity tests showed better results against the Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, especially in the case of great willowherb (Epilobium hirsutum L.).

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NICU A.I., PÎRVU L., VAMANU A. 2017, ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM Agrimonia eupatoria L. AND Epilobium hirsutum L. HERBA. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI, ISSN 2285-1364, 127-132.

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS MADE OF MUSHROOM MYCELIA DEVELOPED IN SUBMERGED CULTURE

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI
Written by Mihai Bogdan NICOLCIOIU, Gabriela POPA, Florentina MATEI

The ethanolic extracts of dried biomass made of mushroom mycelium produced in the submerged cultures of eight edible/medicinal macromycete species Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Laetiporus sulphureus, Flammulina velutipes, Trametes versicolor, Hericium coralloides, Pleurotus eryngii 2600 and Agaricus campestris were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities. Pathogenic tested microorganisms were represented by five bacteria and two yeasts B.subtilis subsp. spizizenii ATCC 6633, Staphilococcus aureus ATCC6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC9027, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, E.faecalis ATCC 29212, Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Candida parapsilosis CBS604. The mushroom biomass was obtained from segments detached from the mycelium culture grown on solid culture medium (PDA or MEA) placed in Erlenmeyer flasks with a liquid culture medium containing 2% malt extract (ME). After inoculation, the probes were incubated at the temperature of 25°C for 21 days. The obtained biomass was filtered and dried at the temperature of 70°C. The ethanolic extracts were prepared by adding 1 ml of 70% ethyl alcohol to 0.2 g of dried fungal biomass. Antimicrobial activities of the mushroom biomass extracts were evaluated by agar disk diffusion method. The results showed that G. applanatum, L. sulphureus, F. velutipes, T. versicolor, H.coralloides and A. campestris extracts had significant inhibitory activities especially against B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii ATCC 6633 bacterium while G. lucidum and Pleurotus eryngii 2600 extracts had no antimicrobial activity against any pathogenic microorganisms tested in this work. Further investigations will be conducted regarding the antimicrobial activity dependence on the fungal morphological part used in the extract(mycelium/fruiting body) and on the solvent type used for extracts' preparation.

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NICOLCIOIU M.B., POPA G., MATEI F. 2017, ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS MADE OF MUSHROOM MYCELIA DEVELOPED IN SUBMERGED CULTURE. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI, ISSN 2285-1364, 159-164.

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF NEWLY ISOLATED Bacillus SP. AND Pseudomonas SP. STRAINS AND THEIR POTENTIAL USE AS BIOCONTROL AGENTS

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI
Written by Mariana-Grațiela SOARE (VLADU), Caterina TOMULESCU, Maria PETRESCU, Irina LUPESCU, Mișu MOSCOVICI, Ovidiu POPA, Narcisa BĂBEANU

Most of the plant diseases are caused by microorganisms. Among these, most often mentioned in the literature are bacteria and fungi. Diseases caused by phytopathogens like Erwinia carotovora and Xanthomonas campestris lead to lower production and quality, causing significant economic losses. In order to prevent the diseases can be used microbial antagonists which, besides protection capability, can stimulate plant growth by degrading the substrate and releasing of certain compounds needed for growth. After a preliminary screening, from a total of 25 microorganisms isolated from plant materials, best antimicrobial activities were registered with bacteria B1 and Bm belonging to the genera Pseudomonas sp. respectively Bacillus sp.. Following biochemical tests in conjunction with microscopy studies and MALDI-TOF MS, selected bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas putida, respectively Bacillus mycoides. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to that of microorganisms belonging to the same genera, from the collection of the National Institute for Chemical Pharmaceutical Research and Development-ICCF. When they were grown on agar media with different compositions, significant differences regarding antimicrobial activity have not been observed. However, substantial differences were recorded in terms of antagonistic ability between Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus mycoides, the last one making the biggest area of inhibition against both phytopathoges X. campestris ICCF 274 (40 mm) and E. carotovora ICCF 138 (20 mm). These results suggest the possibility of using newly isolated antagonists to prevent diseases caused by Erwinia carotovora and Xanthomonas campestris.

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SOARE (VLADU) M.G., TOMULESCU C., PETRESCU M., LUPESCU I., MOSCOVICI M., POPA O., BĂBEANU N. 2017, ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF NEWLY ISOLATED Bacillus SP. AND Pseudomonas SP. STRAINS AND THEIR POTENTIAL USE AS BIOCONTROL AGENTS. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI, ISSN 2285-1364, 81-86.

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TEXTILES TREATED WITH ROSEMARY AND ORANGE ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST A SELECTION OF PATHOGENIC FUNGI

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Ovidiu IORDACHE, Andreea COZEA, Elena VĂRZARU, Elena STOICA, Corneliu PLATON, Steliana RODINO, Iuliana DUMITRESCU

The aim of the research was the evaluation of antimicrobial activity of a textile fabric treated with essential oils extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) and Citrus sinensis (orange), against pathogenic strains of Aspergillus niger (IMI 45551), Candida albicans (ATCC 90028), Trichoderma viride (isolated from agricultural soil), Aspergillus flavus (isolated from agricultural soil) and Epidermophyton floccosum (CCM 8339). Plant extracts were obtained by steam distillation from rosemary vegetal mater and orange peel. GC-MS analysis, carried out in hexane and diethyl-ether, allowed identification of main compounds, with high quantities of eucalyptol, camphor and α –pinene, in rosemary oil, respectively limonene, limonene oxide, α – pinene and β-phellandrene in orange oil. A textile substrate (56% cotton/44% polyester) was treated with concentrations of 1%, 3% and 5% of each oil and antimicrobial activity was assessed against each strain. Bioassays registered various percentage reduction rates, depending on oil concentration and tested strain: on Aspergillus niger, rosemary treatment registered a maximum of 22.12%, whilst orange treatment reached 51.45%; on Candida albicans, both treatment yielded 100% reduction rates for all tested concentrations; on Trichoderma viride, textiles treated with rosemary oil reached a maximum of 76.48% reduction rates, and 100% on orange treatment; on Aspergillus flavus, maximum efficiency on rosemary treatment was of 18.3% and 60.57% on orange treated materials; on Epidermophyton floccosum dermatophyte, maximum reduction rate on rosemary treatment was of 56.99% whilst on orange treatment it registered a maximum of 92.48%. The obtained results promote textiles functionalized with rosemary and orange essential oils as efficient active antimicrobial barriers.

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IORDACHE O., COZEA A., VĂRZARU E., STOICA E., PLATON C., RODINO S., DUMITRESCU I. 2016, ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TEXTILES TREATED WITH ROSEMARY AND ORANGE ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST A SELECTION OF PATHOGENIC FUNGI. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 362-369.

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