Prevalent Salmonella serotypes in some Romanian poultry farms

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI
Written by Elena ROTARU, Stelian BARAITAREANU, Sorin PARVU, Doina DANES

The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the European Food Safety Authority devote considerable resources to develop tools and recommendations to improve epidemiological investigation of food-borne outbreaks. One of the most important food-borne agents monitored are Salmonella spp. and in order to reduce risk to public health, several policy actions were designed to control salmonella infections. Present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella serotypes in seven poultry holdings located in Giurgiu County, Romania. More than three thousand biological samples have been submitted to bacteriological exam. Briefly, samples were pre-enriched in buffered peptone water followed by enrichment in Modified Rappaport-Vassiliadis, Enrichment broth and Selenite Cystine Broth. Resulting cultures have been plated onto XLD, Istrate Meitert and Wilson-Blair agar plates, incubated at 37°C for 24h. Presumptive Salmonella isolates have been biochemically and serologically confirmed. Between 2008 and 2010 were identified and characterized Salmonella serotypes (525 isolates) as follow: S. Virchow (182 strains), S. Enteritidis (10 strains), S. Tallahassee (3 strains), S. Infantis (273 strains), S. Tennessee (9 strains), S. Mbandaka (8 strains), S. Newport (9 strains), S. Amsterdam (2 strains), S. Salamae (1 strain), S. Kottbus (2 strains), S. Glostrup (1 strain), S. Livingstone (2 strains), S. Isangi (1 strain), S. Hadar (19 strains), and S. Thompson (3 strains). The highest prevalence in 2008 registered S. Virchow (182/199) and in 2009-2010 S. Infantis (140/164 and 124/162 respectively). These results show the heterogeneity of Salmonella strains circulating in poultry farms and the competition of serotypes in different years. Also, the high number of isolates with zoonotic potential (264 strains S. Infantis, 10 strains S. Enteritidis) requires increased attention in food security.

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Rotaru E., Baraitareanu S., Parvu S., Danes D., 2012, Prevalent Salmonella serotypes in some Romanian poultry farms. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI, ISSN-L 2285-1364, 160-163.

 

Quality attributes of fresh-cut lettuce treated with cold plasma

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI
Written by Irina SMEU, Matthias BAIER, Antje FRÖHLING, Anca Ioana NICOLAU, Mona Elena POPA, Oliver SCHLÜTER

Cold plasma is a novel method that has proved to be capable as a sanitizing process due to its antimicrobial effects. This study aims to highlight the optimization of this technique for maintaining freshness and safety of fresh-cut lettuce without using any other chemical preservatives. The used atmospheric pressure plasma jet is driven by a radio frequency generator (27.12 MHz) with argon as working gas. The jet has been used at different operating powers in order to evaluate the optimal process parameters that do not affect the product quality. The quality of the lettuce leaves was assessed by optical methods such as chlorophyll fluorescence imaging analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy and colour measurement before and after plasma treatment, and also during the storage period. Depending on the applied process parameters, the effects of the cold plasma treatment on the quality of lettuce leaves can be controlled. However, the treatment conditions have to be adapted to each type of commodity.

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Smeu I., Baie M. r, Fröhling A., Nicolau A. I., Popa M. E., Schlüter O., 2012, Quality attributes of fresh-cut lettuce treated with cold plasma. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI, ISSN-L 2285-1364, 164-171.

 

Research on biocomposite compost influence on the development of hybrid tomato seedlings "SYMPATHIE" F1 (family Solanaceae)

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI
Written by Mona Elena POPA, Gabriela NEAŢĂ, Silvana Mihaela DANAILA-GUIDEA, Nicolae Florian CISMARU, Amalia MITELUT, Steven VERSTICHEL

Biodegradable composting materials production is growing because of the environmental protection requirements which are becoming more and more restrictive regarding the plastics obtained from petroleum resources. Safety requirements must be met if the compost product is designed and used for agriculture, so far, the harmful effects of solid waste was estimated based mainly on its chemical composition. Phytotoxicity is described as an intoxication of living plants when certain substances which are present in the environment, are accumulated in plant tissue. Plant material analyzed was the hybrid tomato seedlings "SYMPATHIE" F1 (family Solanaceae), resulting from seed germination in greenhouse multiplier conditions.Were tested two types of compost: compost Control: only biowaste and test compost: biowaste + composite (10% PLA / Ecoflex (50/50)-Rettenmaier15%) in three experimental series, representing three proportions of mixtures S1 (25%), S2 (50%) and S3 (75%).The behavior of seedlings in various mixtures of compost before transplantation was considered. Different components of mixtures and experimental variant blends themselves were analyzed to see the content of nutrients, in soluble forms which could be available to plants during the vegetation.After two months of agrochemical analyses performed weekly on tomato seedlings, the results showed that the cultivated version of the compost sample P 25% (25% compost from V2-variant and 75% Profesional substrate of brown peat and dark peat), recorded high supply of N (53,20ppm), P (307,80 ppm) and K (5600 ppm) which will be used for transplanting in the field or greenhouse lower consumption of nutrients for plant growth and development.The findings obtained from experimental samples were compared with values recorded in tomato seedlings that were grown in parallel only in Professional Substrate mixture of peat and peat-dark brown 75% 25%, as control.

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Popa M. E., Neaţă G., Danaila-Guidea S. M., Cismaru N. F., Mitelut A., Verstichel S., 2012, Research on biocomposite compost influence on the development of hybrid tomato seedlings "SYMPATHIE" F1 (family Solanaceae). Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI, ISSN-L 2285-1364, 50-55.

 

Research regarding the sensory characteristics of some vegetables

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI
Written by Manuela Adriana COSTACHE, Gheorghe CÂMPEANU, Gabriela NEAŢĂ

Fruit and vegetables quality is an extremely complex problem, difficult to describe objective. Although the consumer is unable to assess the nutritional quality of a fruit or vegetable, however he is able to make a statement on the sensory aspects such as shape, color, texture, juiciness, firmness, taste and aroma. Consumers often complain about the quality of fruit and vegetables, which are offered through commercial distribution systems. The main complaint relates to taste bad and sometimes its absence. However, when it comes to defining exactly what "taste", the answers obtained are not clear and, in general, are quite divergent. Researches try to define some connections between quantitative and analytical determinations type hedonic sensory analysis. They were directed to analyze the quality of vegetables in two distinct directions, namely the analysis of physicochemical and biochemical characteristics that contribute to the scientific definition of taste: pH, acidity, total carbohydrate content, firmness and sensory analysis on issues such as shape, color, texture, juiciness, firmness, flavor and aroma.

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Costache M. A., Câmpeanu G., Neaţă G., 2012, Research regarding the sensory characteristics of some vegetables. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI, ISSN-L 2285-1364, 135-138.

 

Researches regarding the image analysis in wheat quality eval

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI
Written by Ciprian Nicolae POPA, Radiana Maria TAMBA-BEREHOIU, Stela POPESCU

There have been analyzed the main quality parameters of 27 wheat samples from Romanian crops, of the years 2010 and 2011, namely: Humidity (%), Hectolitric mass (kg / hl), Falling number (sec), Protein content (%), Wet gluten content (%) and Gluten Index. Afterwards, the wheat samples were ground on the Chopen pilot-type mill and the alveografic parameters were determined from the resulting flour: Resistance (P, mm), Extensibility (L, mm), Mechanical Work (W, 10E-4J), Elasticity index (Ie,%), Gluten Extensibility index and the P/L report. The wheat samples taken for analysis were scanned using a commercial scanner, at a resolution of 200 dpi. The obtained results were examined with a specific software, used for the analysis of ImageJ image. For each image we determined the color histogram with the specific parameters: R, G, B, Brightness and Fractal Dimension. Our results have shown highly significant correlations between the color histogram parameters (Brightness, R, G, B) and the alveografic parameters, namely: Resistance (-0.64

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Popa C. N., Tamba-Berehoiu R. M., Popescu S., 2012, Researches regarding the image analysis in wheat quality eval. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI, ISSN-L 2285-1364, 40-44.

 

Risk factors for human giardiasis in two Romanian counties

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI
Written by Mala-Maria STAVRESCU-BEDIVAN, Mioara VARGA

The hereby paper analyses the risk factors most often associated with the appearance of the disease produced by the flagellate protozoan Giardia lamblia in human population: gender, age and patient’s place of origin. Applying the Student t-test in order to verify the hypothesies Ho (null hypothesis-the averages of the two paired series do not differ significantly) and Ha (the alternative hypothesis-the averages of the two paired series differ significantly) leads to the acceptance or rejection of one of them. The observational data had been recorded during 2009-2010 years on to the County hospitals of Tulcea and Vâlcea counties in Romania, the survey being based on more than 5000 human subjects: adults and children of both sexes. More such studies like ours should be carried out in Romania in order to have a better understanding of the epidemiology on parasitic diseases which affect the human population of both sexes, all ages and all life environments.

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Stavrescu-Bedivan M. M., Varga M., 2012, Risk factors for human giardiasis in two Romanian counties. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI, ISSN-L 2285-1364, 179-181.

 

Screening of antagonistic Trichoderma for biocontrol activities on phytopathogens

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI
Written by Iuliana RAUT, Mariana CONSTANTIN, Gelu VASILESCU, Luiza JECU, Tatiana ŞESAN

Biological control, the use of specific microorganisms that interfere with plant pathogens and pests, is a nature-friendly and ecological approach to overcome the problems caused by standard chemical methods of plant protection. Trichoderma species are known as biocontrol agents against plant phytopathogens. This finding is a consequence of several key factors, such as faster metabolic rates, anti-microbial metabolites and physiological conformation. In this study, in vitro potential of selected isolates strains of Trichoderma were evaluated against well known and virulent phytopathogens, such as Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Botrytis allii, Botryris cinerea and Pythium debaryanum. The selection of bioantagonistic microorganisms was carried out using dual culture method observing the pathogen growth inhibition by biocontrol agent. The inhibition extent varies from strain to strain. Trichoderma T27 strain presented the highest bioantagonistic activity and the most sensitive pathogens were Fusarium graminearum, Botryris cinerea and Pythium debaryanum . The optical microscopy observations revealed changes of morphological characters at pathogens due to biocontrol agent activity. Full exploitation of the biocontrol potential of Trichoderma spp. could easily provide growth enhancement of domestic plants, green house plants, and agricultural crops.

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Raut I., Constantin M., Vasilescu G., Jecu L., Şesan T., 2012, Screening of antagonistic Trichoderma for biocontrol activities on phytopathogens. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI, ISSN-L 2285-1364, 63-66.

 

Studies on biodegradation of tanned leather

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI
Written by Florentina ISRAEL-ROMING, Evelina GHERGHINA, Gabriela LUŢĂ, Daniela BĂLAN, Alina POPA, Roxana ŞTEFAN, Carmen CÎMPEANU, Călina Petruţa CORNEA

Wastes from the leather industry as well as insoluble and hard-to-degrade animal proteins are currently eliminated by incineration, method with high ecological disadvantages. In order to avoid these inconvenients, microbiological and/or enzymatic methods are examined. Leather degradation was performed in two trials: one enzymatic-assisted and the other microbial-assisted. Enzymatic hydrolysis of collagen, the representative protein of leather, was performed with collagenase type IA, with six enzyme concentrations, for up to 10 days. The hydrolysis yield was evaluated by free amino acids determination. Microbial hydrolysis involved 35 bacterial strains belonging to various genera (Streptomyces, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Serratia etc), screened for their ability of growth in minimal medium containing bovine leather, ovine leather or wool as unique carbon or nitrogen sources. Three of these strains: Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 and a new bacterial isolate, designated BN7, were able to grow in the presence of treated leather or wool, visible differences being observed after 10 days of incubation. The best results were obtained with the strain BN7, the level of free amino acids and of the extracellular proteins (as a measure of organic substrate degradation) was rather high (2.22 µmoles amino acids and 61 µg protein respectively). Amino acids release and extracellular protein synthesis indicates both collagenase and keratinase activity. The degradation of tanned leather was examined microscopically: significant disorganization of leather fibres was observed.

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Israel-Roming F., Gherghina E., Luţă G., Bălan D., Popa A., Ştefan R., Cîmpeanu C., Cornea C. P., 2012, Studies on biodegradation of tanned leather. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI, ISSN-L 2285-1364, 119-123.

 

Study of high efficiency systems to ractopmine detection in environmental samples

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI
Written by Simone PERAZZOLI, Maíra MALLMANN, Estela NUNES

The concern about the effects of growth promoter drugs exposure, such as ractopamine, has mobilized the scientific community in the search for methods to detect this compound in different matrices. The ractopamine is a E-adrenergic agonist largely used in intensive farm. Studies demonstrates that 95% of the quantity of this ingested drug are excreted in the first 3 days in swine and 55% in cattle are excreted in feces, while 10% and 45% respectively are excreted in the urine, being detected until 2 weeks after the treatment. The present study aimed to propose the development of ractopamine extraction, cleaning and detection methodology to environmental samples (water and wastewater) by a biographical evaluation about it determination in different matrices. For the cleaning and extraction/purification different techniques must be tested, for example the immunoaffinity collumn (IAC) to waters and an association of extraction liquid-liquid (LLE) followed by IAC to wastewaters, because they are complex samples. For the detection, a methodology that uses high performance liquid chromatography with detection by fluorescence (HPLC/FLD) was proposed, because it is less expensive when compared to other high efficiency systems, as liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, the challenge consists in establishing of a method that achieves the validation rules and it is economically feasible to application not just for research, but in industry and government control departments, mainly in developing countries.

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Perazzoli S., Mallmann M., Nunes E., 2012, Study of high efficiency systems to ractopmine detection in environmental samples. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI, ISSN-L 2285-1364, 124-132.

 

The effect of the Fusarium sp. attack on the quality parameters of Romanian wheat

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI
Written by Radiana Maria TAMBA-BEREHOIU, Ciprian Nicolae POPA, Stela POPESCU, Alexandru SUCIU

There have been analyzed 102 samples of Romanian wheat, coming from the crops of the years 2007-2011, in order to assess the influence of the Fusarium sp. attack on the main quality parameters. In this respect, there have been analyzed the following physical and chemical parameters: Hectolitre mass (kg/hl), Moisture (%), Protein content (%), Wet gluten content (%), Falling Number (sec), Gluten deformation (mm), Gluten Index, as well as the Content of kernels attacked by Fusarium (%). The Fusarium attack ranged from 0.1% to 4.5% and was characterized by very high variability. The evaluation of Fusarium attack was made through the Spearman statistical test, which showed its significant influence on the amylase activity of wheat (expressed by the parameter Falling Number, r = -0.22 *) and on the proteolytic activity (expressed by the Gluten deformation, r = -0.28 *).

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Tamba-Berehoiu R. M., Popa C. N., Popescu S., Suciu A., 2012, The effect of the Fusarium sp. attack on the quality parameters of Romanian wheat. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XVI, ISSN-L 2285-1364, 73-76.

 


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