GETTING PLANTS NICOTIANA TABACUM THAT SIMULTANEOUSLY EXPRESS HETEROLOGOUS GENE OF TWO ACYL-LIPID DESATURASES CYANOBACTERIUM DESC AND DESA

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Tetyana KYRPA-NESMIIAN

An important role in plant resistance to low temperature plays a composition of membrane lipids. With the increase of unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in the membranes of cells decreases the transition temperature of the gel phase in liquid crystal phase. Desaturases are enzymes that contribute to the formation of double bonds in the crystal and thus turn the FA with a saturated in unsaturated. The paper used the plant Nicotiana tabacum, expressing the gene of Δ9 acyl-lipid desaturase (desC) cyanobacterium Synechococcus vulcanus. These plants were transformed with a vector-based pBISN with selective nptII gene, under the control of the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus, that carrying the targeted gene desA: licBM3 by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Spend regeneration on Murashige-Skooge medium with the addition of ВАР, NAA, cefotaxime, kanamycin. Finally we obtained transgenic plants carrying the two genes heterologous desaturases cyanobacterium.

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KYRPA-NESMIIAN T. 2016, GETTING PLANTS NICOTIANA TABACUM THAT SIMULTANEOUSLY EXPRESS HETEROLOGOUS GENE OF TWO ACYL-LIPID DESATURASES CYANOBACTERIUM DESC AND DESA. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 65-68.

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GM PLANTS AS BIOFACTORIES OF PHARMACEUTICAL PROTEINS: PRESENT STATE AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI
Written by Oscar VICENTE, Monica BOSCAIU

The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as biofactories for the production of recombinant proteins of commercial interest is at present one of the major applications of 'molecular’ biotechnology, and the business basis of many modern biotech companies. Since marketing in the early 1980s of recombinant human insulin, synthesised in Escherichia coli, hundreds of proteins with pharmacological activity, used for the diagnosis, treatment of prevention of human (and animal) diseases, have been produced in different platforms. The intrinsic limitations of bacterial cell cultures – especially the lack of the machinery for post-translanslational modifications of proteins, which are required for the synthesis of pharmacologically active proteins – have made mammalian cell cultures the system of choice for the industrial production of biopharmaceuticals. These are robust, reliable and highly controlled production systems, optimised over the years and for which GMP ('good manufacturing practice’) procedures have been established and approved by the competent authorities. Mammalian cell cultures, however, have also important limitations and drawbacks, mostly regarding their high costs, relatively low productivity and lack of flexibility to scale-up or -down the production, in response to market demands. Many of these limitations could be overcome with the use of plant biofactories, the so-called '3rd generation’ of genetically modified plants used for the commercial production of recombinant proteins including, more specifically, pharmaceutical proteins: 'molecular pharming’ or 'pharma crops. However, despite the important advantages – at least theoretically – of GM plants, development of this kind of production platforms has been slow and the first plant-made biopharmaceuticals have been approved for human use only recently. This has been due mostly to regulatory issues rather than to scientific or technical problems, but recent developments indicate a rapid growth of this technology, even if it is limited to niche markets for specific plant-made protein drugs.

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VICENTE O., BOSCAIU M. 2017, GM PLANTS AS BIOFACTORIES OF PHARMACEUTICAL PROTEINS: PRESENT STATE AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI, ISSN 2285-1364, 308-313.

HPTLC IDENTIFICATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF Pleurotus ostreatus AND Lentinus edodes EXTRACTS

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI
Written by Corina BUBUEANU, Alice GRIGORE, Ecaterina ȘERBAN, Gabriela POPA, Petruța-Călina CORNEA

Because of the special flavour and of the therapeutic properties, Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinus edodes are among the most cultivated and consumed mushrooms species. This work aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties and free radical scavenger activities of Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinus edodes methanol extracts by phosphomolibdenum and DPPH- assays respectively, total phenolic content (Folin – Ciocalteu) and identification of bioactive compounds by HPTLC (high-performance thin layer chromatography). The obtained fingerprints of extracts, in tree systems (for phenols, coumarins and triterpenoid saponins) have shown the presence of ferulic acid as main compounds in Pleurotus ostreatus extract and ergosterol (provitamin D2) in both of them. Total phenol content was 2.03 g/100g for Lentinus edodes extract and 1.24 g/100g for Pleurotus ostreatus extract. Radical scavenger activity and total antioxidant capacity, was higher for Lentinus edodes extract (90.14%, 203.05 mg AA) in comparison with the results obtained for Pleurotus ostreatus extract (85.32%, 168.34mg AA). The mushrooms examined in this work could represent important and accessible sources of natural antioxidants for food, food supplement and cosmetic industry.

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BUBUEANU C., GRIGORE A., ȘERBAN E., POPA G., CORNEA P.C. 2017, HPTLC IDENTIFICATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF Pleurotus ostreatus AND Lentinus edodes EXTRACTS. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI, ISSN 2285-1364, 343-348.

HPTLC PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FINGERPRINT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SAMBUCUS EBULUS LEAVES AND FRUIT

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Corina BUBUEANU, Ramona-Daniela PĂVĂLOIU, Fawzia SHA'AT, Angela CĂȘĂRICĂ

Phenolic compounds fingerprint of the 50% (v/v) ethanol extracts obtained from leaves (LE) and fruits (FE) of Sambucus ebulus (dwarf elder), fam Adoxaceae, was obtained by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), in order to evaluated its qualitative chemical composition and antioxidant activity (by DPPH and TAC assays). Quantitative evaluation of total polyphenolic compounds was made by Folin Ciocalteu assay. The obtained fingerprints showed that both extracts are characterized by the presence of flavonoid glycosides and phenol carboxylic acids. The presence of anthocyanins was revealed only in fruit extract Total phenol content was 19.5 mg GAE/g dry material for LE and 52,5 mg GAE/g dry material for FE. Both extracts have important antioxidant activity in a concentration-dependent manner, fruits extract exhibiting a higher one.

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BUBUEANU C., PĂVĂLOIU R.D., SHA'AT F., CĂȘĂRICĂ A. 2016, HPTLC PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FINGERPRINT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SAMBUCUS EBULUS LEAVES AND FRUIT. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 243-247.

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IDENTIFICATION OF MAIN VOLATILE COMPOUNDS FROM THE MUST OF HYBRID GRAPES GROWN IN ROMANIA

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI
Written by Luminiţa Valerica VIŞAN, Ricuţa Vasilica DOBRINOIU, Diana GROPOȘILĂ-CONSTANTINESCU, Silvana DĂNĂILĂ-GUIDEA, Radiana TAMBA-BEREHOIU

Grape must originated from American hybrids Vitis labrusca (first generation) were analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and Gas Chromatography/Olfactometry (GC/O) to identify the maincompounds that characterize aroma of these vine varieties. Were detected a number of 29 compounds, from which 23 were identify as: volatile aldehydes and acids, ketones, esters, alcohols, terpenes. The responsible compounds with the specific character of grape labrusca are o-Aminoacetophenone, compound which give that foxy aroma of these hybrids and 2,5-dimethyl tetra hydro (2H)-3-furanone, known for having that sweet candy and candy-floss aroma. Other compounds identified in higher concentrations were the hydroxyl esters, they contributed at that “fruity” character of labrusca grapes.

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VIŞAN L.V., DOBRINOIU R.V., GROPOȘILĂ-CONSTANTINESCU D., DĂNĂILĂ-GUIDEA S., TAMBA-BEREHOIU R. 2017, IDENTIFICATION OF MAIN VOLATILE COMPOUNDS FROM THE MUST OF HYBRID GRAPES GROWN IN ROMANIA. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI, ISSN 2285-1364, 99-103.

IDENTIFICATION OF THE MOST RELEVANT QUALITY PARAMETERS FOR BERRIES - A REVIEW

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Elisabeta Elena TĂNASE, Vlad Ioan POPA, Mona Elena POPA, Mihaela GEICU-CRISTEA, Paul POPESCU, Mihaela DRĂGHICI, Amalia Carmen MITELUȚ

Fresh fruit jointly to vegetables are an essential component of a healthy diet, able to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In the last years, their consumption has continued to grow rapidly linked to the increased public awareness of their health benefits, even if it remains below the recommended daily intake in many countries, due to barriers such as complacency and lack of willpower to change the diet. The attributes of berries, like chemical-physical and nutritional characteristics, microbial contamination, chemical contaminants as well as sensorial properties represent some very important quality parameters that must be determined in order to establish the quality of berries after ripening and during storage, until they reach their final destination (consumer). The aim of this study was to perform a literature review in order to determine the most relevant quality parameters of berries and to describe methods for their determination.

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TĂNASE E.E., POPA V.I., POPA M.E., GEICU-CRISTEA M., POPESCU P., DRĂGHICI M., MITELUȚ A.C. 2016, IDENTIFICATION OF THE MOST RELEVANT QUALITY PARAMETERS FOR BERRIES - A REVIEW. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 222-236.

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IN VITRO BIODEGRADATION OF KERATINIZED SUBSTRATES BY KERATINOPHILIC FUNGI

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Mariana CĂLIN, Olguţa DRĂCEA, Iuliana RĂUT, Gelu VASILESCU, Mihaela BADEA DONI, Melania Liliana ARSENE, Elvira ALEXANDRESCU, Diana CONSTANTINESCU-ARUXANDEI, Luiza JECU, Veronica LAZĂR

Keratinophylic fungi are present in the environment with a variable distribution, being influenced by human and animal presence and playing an important role in the biodegradation of keratinized substrates (skin, hair shaft, nails, claws, horns, wool and feathers). These fungi are geophilic, zoophilic and anthropofilic. Keratinophylic fungi have the ability to degrade keratinized materials, using the keratin as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. This behaviour is based on the activity of keratinases, enzymes belonging to the group of proteases that can specifically degrade keratin. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biodegradative ability of some keratinophylic fungal strains, clinical and geophilic isolates. The tested keratinized substrates were represented by animal hair strands. The rate of keratinized substrates biodegradation was expressed as weight loss over three weeks of incubation in minimal liquid medium in an orbital incubator. The morphological changes of hair samples were observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

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CĂLIN M., DRĂCEA O., RĂUT I., VASILESCU G., BADEA DONI M., ARSENE M.L., ALEXANDRESCU E., CONSTANTINESCU-ARUXANDEI D., JECU L., LAZĂR V. 2016, IN VITRO BIODEGRADATION OF KERATINIZED SUBSTRATES BY KERATINOPHILIC FUNGI. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 248-253.

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IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF BITTER GOURD (Momordica charantia L.)

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI
Written by Sevil SAGLAM

Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) belongs to the family Cucurbiteceae. It is widely consumed as a vegetable and especially as a folk medicine in Asia. This review outlines the work done on the tissue culture of Momordica charantia L.. Commonly known as karela or bitter melon and contains bright red seeds due to high lycopene, a pigment that can be used as an artificial food colorant. Bitter gourd protein has been reported to have HIV inhibitor properties. The fruits of bitter gourd contain nutritionally useful essential minerals and amino acids. It has hypoglycemic activity which reduces the blood glucose, antitumor activity and antispermatogenic and androgenic activities. It is a common food item of the tropics and is used for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, AIDS and many ailments. It has also include alkaloids, insulin like peptides, and a mixture of steroidal sapogenins known as charantin. Bitter gourd is tolerant to a range of limiting factors of the environments and can be grown in tropical and subtropical climates. Improvement of this crop and development of new varieties are obviously necessary which could be done through the applications of modern techniques of biotechnology. Plant tissue culture is one of the biotechnological technique to culture plant cells or tissues under controlled aseptic conditions on artificial medium and is used to some degree in the improvement of almost every major agronomic, vegetable and fibre crop species. It has value in basic research like cell biology, genetic transformation studies and biochemistry for the production of medicinally valuable secondary metabolites. Some limited efforts have been made for the improvement of this crop using biotechnological techniques like: type of explants (auxin, cytokinin), media composition, growth conditions, genotypes.

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SAGLAM S. 2017, IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF BITTER GOURD (Momordica charantia L.). Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI, ISSN 2285-1364, 46-50.

INCREASING THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND ASSIMILATORY PIGMENTS CONTENT BY OPTIMIZING THE IN VITRO GROWTH CONDITIONS OF LYCIUM BARBARUM PLANT

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Mihaela DUȚU, Aurel ARDELEAN, Mirela ARDELEAN, Dorina CACHIŢĂ-COSMA, BURDUCEA Marian, Andrei LOBIUC, Elida ROSENHECH

According to information published in various specialized articles and those taken from traditional beliefs, goji fruit is considered to be an important antioxidant, antidiabetic, and a natural source with excellent effects on the cardiovascular system and in decreasing the level of cholesterol in the human body. The present study was conducted to develop a method of optimizing the content of antioxidants. Therefore, we initiated the in vitro culture of goji plants from meristematic apexes of plants harvested from 30-day-old germinated seeds generated from the substrate septic consisting of peat mixed with perlite. The culture medium used was Murashige & Skoog supplemented with 0.5 mg / l IBA (indolyl butyric acid) and 0.5 mg / l BA (benzyladenine). Plants containers were exposed to light of different colors fluorescent tubes from Osram company and the following lengths wave: white; blue- 473 nm; green- 533 nm; yellow 580 nm; red-680 nm. Chamber growth temperature was 23°C ± 2°C, between light and 20°C ± 2°C, during hours of darkness, photoperiod of 16 hours light and 8 hours darkness. At the age of 60 days these vitro seedlings have undergone physiological and biochemical analyzes. Red light, green and yellow stimulates growth length of vitro seedlings and blue light produce small and stocky plants and even growth slowing. Blue light has increased the total content of assimilating pigments and content of antioxidants (phenols, flavonoids) were increased by the yellow and white light. The antioxidant capacity was also higher in vitroplants grown in blue light and lowest in red light.

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DUȚU M., ARDELEAN A., ARDELEAN M., CACHIŢĂ-COSMA D., BURDUCEA M., LOBIUC A., ROSENHECH E. 2016, INCREASING THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND ASSIMILATORY PIGMENTS CONTENT BY OPTIMIZING THE IN VITRO GROWTH CONDITIONS OF LYCIUM BARBARUM PLANT. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 44-50.

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INDOOR CULTIVATION OF SELECTED OIL – CONTAINING CONSORTIA OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC MICROORGANISMS FOR FURTHER BIODIESEL PRODUCTION; PRELIMINARY FINANCIAL EVALUATION

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Ioan I. ARDELEAN, Damian MANEA

This paper presents results concerning the indoor cultivation of selected mixed populations of photosynthetic microorganisms using BG11medium as well as a cheaper medium based on chemical fertilizers and residual glycerol. Preliminary financial evaluations are also presented in order to focus on the economical constraints. The growth of selected oil- containing consortia of photosynthetic microorganisms in 90L of BG11(prepared in spring water) produced in 14 days 285 grams of dry weight biomass containing 28% of lipids; the cost (taking into account only chemicals and water) of 1 Kg of dry biomass means 83.3 lei; whereas the same consortium grown in 30L of alternative medium, prepared with agricultural fertilizers, residual glycerol and spring water produced in 14 days 150g grams of dry weight biomass containing 20% of lipids; the cost (taking into account only chemicals and water) of 1 Kg of dry biomass is 3.2 lei.

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ARDELEAN I.I., MANEA D. 2016, INDOOR CULTIVATION OF SELECTED OIL – CONTAINING CONSORTIA OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC MICROORGANISMS FOR FURTHER BIODIESEL PRODUCTION; PRELIMINARY FINANCIAL EVALUATION. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 237-242.

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