EUROPEAN FOOD LAW, YOUNG GOVERNANCE

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI
Written by Adina-Alexandra BAICU, Mona Elena POPA, Elisabeta Elena POPA, Amalia Carmen MITELUŢ

Together with the growth and development of the European Union, the European Food Law has experienced fundamental modifications. If before the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy scandal, the food safety legislation was market oriented, nowadays its direction converges to the protection of the consumer. As a result, the actual food safety set of laws bases itself on scientific opinion, together with other factors that the risk manager has to consider when legislating. This paper is depicting the steps taken by the European food legislation until reaching its actual form. It starts with describing the frame in which the European Food Law was approached before its changes, and it continues with presenting the drafts needed to build its present shape. In addition, because the current legislation is founded on the concept of risk analysis, the term will be elaborated both from a general perspective but also with respect to its applications in the food industry field.

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BAICU A.A., POPA M.E., POPA E.E., MITELUŢ A.C. 2017, EUROPEAN FOOD LAW, YOUNG GOVERNANCE. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI, ISSN 2285-1364, 314-317.

EVALUATION OF THE CAPACITY OF DIFFERENT MICROORGANISMS TO SOLUBILIZE SEVERAL COMPOUNDS OF PHOSPHOROUS AND ZINC

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Andreea DOBRE, Laura Alexandra MARIN, Carmen MANOLE, Nicoleta ANDREI, Călina Petruța CORNEA

Microorganisms are the main responsible for bioremediation processes. They have the capacity to convert toxic substances in lesser or untoxic ones and also can solubilize compounds in order to make them available to plants. This article emphasizes the capacity of several microorganisms, isolated from different sources, to solubilize Pin, Porg and Zn based compounds. The screening methods comprised the use of several culture media (PVK, NBRIP, PSM and Bunt&Rovira) with added dyes used as pH markers (bromphenol blue and bromcresol purple). The used bacteria were three strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BIR, BW, OS15, OS17), four strains of Bacillus subtilis (BPA, ICPA, ATCC6633, 10), two strains of Bacillus spp. (B3, B4), one strain of Kluyvera ascorbata(35) and one unindentified strain isolated from soil contaminated with swines manure. After 1 to 7 days of incubation, the halos formed around the colonies showed the bacteria capacity to degrade the compounds of interest. Depending on the screening assay it was determined the eventual mechanisms involved, such as organic acids production, phytase or phosphatases synthesis, etc. Bacteria which had the capacity to solublize Pin based compounds were B3, B4, OS15, BPA, BIR, BW, OS17, ATCC6633, 35 and 10. The ones which were able to degrade phytate (Porg) were BIR, BPA, ICPC, OS15, OS17, BW, 10 and 35. The strains that solublized ZnO were BPA, B4, ATCC 6633, 32 and 35. The isolation sources of bacteria were mainly different types of soil, fact that strengthens the teory that soil bacteria are able to secret metabolites which could be involved in bioremediation and crop protection because they are already adapted to soil contaminants from environment.

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DOBRE A., MARIN L.A., MANOLE C., ANDREI N., CORNEA C.P. 2016, EVALUATION OF THE CAPACITY OF DIFFERENT MICROORGANISMS TO SOLUBILIZE SEVERAL COMPOUNDS OF PHOSPHOROUS AND ZINC. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 254-262.

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EVALUATION OF THE GENETIC DIVERSITY OF Pleurotus ostreatus STRAINS USING COMBINATORIAL TUBULIN BASED POLYMORPHISM (cTBP) AND ISSR MARKERS

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI
Written by Gabriela POPA, Matilda CIUCĂ, Călina Petruța CORNEA, Bogdan NICOLCIOIU, Radu TOMA

Pleurotus ostreatus is one of the most widely cultivated and popular edible fungi from the genus Pleurotus. In the last years, genetic variation of wild strains and cultivated varieties was investigated by use molecular markers and revealed a reduction of the diversity in commercial cultures. In this paper are presented the results obtained by application of combinatorial tubulin based polymorphism (cTBP) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, in order to investigate the genetic variability in several commercial strains of P. ostreatus collected from different geographical locations and their genetic relationships with wild isolates. Five polymorphic PCR products were obtained with primers designated for intron 1 of beta-tubulin gene, and 12 polymorphic amplicons were detected when primers for intron 2 of the same gene were used. Molecular analysis performed with ISSR primers displayed a polymorphism at intra specific level. The data achieved with the cTBP and ISSR markers revealed a reduced genetic differentiation among the commercial lines dispersed in Europe. However, comparing with commercial lines originated from USA, differences at molecular level were observed, suggesting a possible influence of environmental conditions. Regarding the wild strain of P. ostreatus, the molecular data indicated similarity with all European commercial lines. The results demonstrated that the applied molecular methods could be considered efficient tools to evaluate the genetic diversity in Pleurotus ostreatus.

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POPA G., CIUCĂ M., CORNEA C.P., NICOLCIOIU B., TOMA R. 2017, EVALUATION OF THE GENETIC DIVERSITY OF Pleurotus ostreatus STRAINS USING COMBINATORIAL TUBULIN BASED POLYMORPHISM (cTBP) AND ISSR MARKERS. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI, ISSN 2285-1364, 11-16.

EVALUATION OF Trichoderma spp. AS A BIOCONTROL AGENT AGAINST Phytophthora parasitica

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI
Written by Iuliana RĂUT, Florin OANCEA, Ana Belén López Santísima TRINIDAD, Mariana CĂLIN, Diana CONSTANTINESCU-ARUXANDEI, Mihaela BADEA DONI, Melania- Liliana ARSENE, Gelu VASILESCU, Tatiana Eugenia ŞESAN, Luiza JECU

The genus Phytophthora causes great damages to agricultural production, especially to potatoes and tomatoes cultures. To face these losses, it is of interest to reduce or inhibit the activity of this aggressive pathogen. Some species of Trichoderma have great potential for the biological control of several plant pathogens, including diseases caused by Phytophthora parasitica, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium ultimum, Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum etc. The purpose of this study was to assess the biocontrol efficacy of three Trichoderma strains (T. asperellum T36, T. asperellum T50, T. harzianum T78) against Phytophthora parasitica. In vitro tests were carried out using dual culture technique. In vivo tests were carried out with pepper seedlings (Capsicum annuum cv. Lamuyo) and conidial standard suspension of Trichoderma isolates as biocontrol agents. Of the three Trichoderma isolates tested for their effectiveness against mycelial growth of pathogen, T. asperellum T36 (81.2%) exhibited maximum inhibition of P. parasitica, compared with the control, followed by T. asperellum T50 (79.6%) and T. harzianum T78 (77.7%). Likewise for the in vivo test, the inoculation of the Trichoderma biocontrol agent showed that the percentage of dead plants seedlings was significant reduced. T. asperellum T36 is a useful biological alternative to pesticides for the control of P. parasitica in pepper seedlings.

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RĂUT I., OANCEA F., TRINIDAD A.B.L.S., CĂLIN M., CONSTANTINESCU-ARUXANDEI D., BADEA DONI M., ARSENE M.L., VASILESCU G., ŞESAN T.E., JECU L. 2017, EVALUATION OF Trichoderma spp. AS A BIOCONTROL AGENT AGAINST Phytophthora parasitica. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI, ISSN 2285-1364, 179-182.

EXTRACTION AND ANALYTICAL METHODS OF CAPSAICINOIDS - A REVIEW

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Roxana-Mădălina STOICA, Mișu MOSCOVICI, Caterina TOMULESCU, Narcisa BĂBEANU

Bioactive natural products are a main source of new drugs, functional foods and food additives. Chilli pepper is a very important plant used worldwide as a vegetable, a spice and an external medicine. Capsaicin, the pungent principle of Capsicum sp. (69%) is one of the best-known natural compounds. The extraction of the capsacinoids can be made in many ways, with different types of organic solvents, but the yield varies with peppers variety and the conditions of extraction processing. The use of supercritical fluids, especially carbon dioxide, in the extraction of oleoresins, has increased during the last two decades, because it is a simple, inexpensive, fast, effective and solvent-free sample pretreatment technique in comparison with traditional methods (maceration, Soxhlet). Also, the level of capsaicinoids in the Capsicum fruits can be quantified by organoleptic, spectrophotometry, thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Of these, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is considered the most reliable and rapid method available for the identification and quantification of capsaicinoids.

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STOICA R.M., MOSCOVICI M., TOMULESCU C., BĂBEANU N. 2016, EXTRACTION AND ANALYTICAL METHODS OF CAPSAICINOIDS - A REVIEW. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 93-98.

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FERMENTATION OF ACID-PRETREATED TEA PROCESSING WASTE FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION USING Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Mustafa GERMEC, Irfan TURHAN, Ercan YATMAZ, Nedim TETIK, Mustafa KARHAN

Value-added products such as biofuels, enzymes, polysaccharides, pharmaceuticals, and organic acids can be produced from renewable resources such as carob pods, wheat straw, rice straw, rice husk, sugarcane bagasse, etc. by fermentation. Tea processing waste (TPW) is one of the renewable resources, which contains 13.60% cellulose, 32.16% hemicellulose, and 33.38% lignin. Due to its high carbohydrate content (total 45.76% wt), TPW can be used for production of value-added products. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were undertaken not only to determine the chemical composition of acid-pretreated tea processing waste hydrolysate (APTPWH) but also to investigate the effect of pH, inoculum size, agitation, and nitrogen sources on ethanol production from APTPWH without detoxification by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a stirred tank bioreactor. Results showed that it contains no HMF and lactic acid, 16.03 g/L fermentable sugar (FS), 0.43 g/L acetic acid, 2.61 g/L glucose, 4.14 g/L fructose+xylose, and 2.27 g/L phenolics. For batch ethanol fermentations, optimum conditions were found to be pH controlled at 5.5, 5% inoculum size (v/v), 150 rpm agitation speed, and yeast extract, which achieved as 25.55% yield (YP/S), 1.75 g/L ethanol production (P), and 0.38 g/L/h productivity (QP). Consequently, ethanol could be relatively produced from TPW without detoxification.

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GERMEC M., TURHAN I., YATMAZ E., TETIK N., KARHAN M. 2016, FERMENTATION OF ACID-PRETREATED TEA PROCESSING WASTE FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION USING Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 269-274.

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FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF CAMEL MILK AND THEIR INFLUENCES ON TECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI
Written by Selda BULCA

According to the recent statistics by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the total population of camels in the world is estimated to be about 20 million, with Somalia having the largest herd worldwide. Camels are well adapted to harsh desert climates and can survive without drinking water for days. Therefore, camel (Camelus dromedarius) is of significant socio-economic importance in many arid and semi-arid parts of the world and its milk constitutes an important component of human diets in these regions. The amounts of lysozyme, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and immunoglobulins were found to be greater in dromedary camel milk than bovine or buffalo milk. This property has been shown to be a disadvantage in yoghurt production. As known like yoghurt, cheese is another fermented milk product, due to the activity of these compounds the enzymatic reaction is disturbed and the gelation process of milk is prolonged. These antimicrobial agents were reported to completely lose their activity in camel milk if heat-treated at 100°C for 30 min. But there are contradictional statements about the heating intensity. Therfore in this review on these studies are focussed. In addition the chemical composition of camel milk is compared with another ruminant milks. Camel milk has lots of functional properties. These are antioxidant activity, bioactivity, anti-cancer activity, hypoallergenicity.

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BULCA S. 2017, FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF CAMEL MILK AND THEIR INFLUENCES ON TECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XXI, ISSN 2285-1364, 275-283.

GASTROPROTECTIVE POTENTIAL OF FAGUS SYLVATICA LEAVES EXTRACTS ON STRESS-INDUCED ULCER MODEL ON RATS

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Lucia PIRVU, Ioana NICU, Stelian SCHIOPU, Dragomir COPREAN

Romanian folk medicine recommends Fagus sylvatica L. bark and leaves derived products (infusions, decoctions and raw powders) for various skins, respiratory and digestive ailments. The presented work was based on this data, and it aimed to evaluate gastroprotective potential of one standardized product prepared from beech leaves collected in July, by testing it on stress-induced ulcer model on rats. Beech leaves derived product (FA) has been designed as a combination of two polar extracts: aqueous extract as source of polysaccharides compounds and ethanolic (defatted) extract as source of polyphenols compounds resulting in a final standardized product (powder) with exactly 2% (w/w) total flavones content expressed as rutin equivalents. The obtained results, the total length (mm) of superficial, medium and deep gastric lesions of exposed groups versus control group indicated that while the pre-treatment with chemical reference product Ranitidine, an inhibitor of histamine receptor (RH2), assured gastric protection percentages of 59%, 54% and 89%, the pre-treatment with beech leaves derived product (FA) demonstrated gastric protection percentages of 38%, 62% and 96% (n=6; p˂0.05) on superficial, medium and deep lesions. Therefore, our results confirm gastroprotective potential of beech leaves derived products (precisely aqueous and ethanolic defatted extracts) suggesting potential use for the development of new phytomedicines targeted at the digestive system.

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PIRVU L., NICU I., SCHIOPU S., COPREAN D. 2016, GASTROPROTECTIVE POTENTIAL OF FAGUS SYLVATICA LEAVES EXTRACTS ON STRESS-INDUCED ULCER MODEL ON RATS. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 293-299.

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GENETIC ANALYSIS OF QTLs CONTROLLING CARPEL NUMBER IN CITRUS

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Osman GULSEN, Aydin UZUN, Ihsan CANAN

Purpose of this research is to determine the markers controlling carpel number in mandarin. Progenies obtained by hybridization between the Clementine mandarins (C. clementina Hort. ex Tan.) and Orlando tangelos (C. reticulata Blanco x C. Paradise Macf.) have been used in this research. Morphological and molecular marker data were analyzed in SAS software by using GLM and REGRESSION module. Population includes variation in respect to carpel number, which transgressive segregation was observed and distribution was positively skewed. Based onvariance analysis made by using GLM option in SAS software, ten markers were associated with carpel number All loci explained 100% of the variation for carpel number. OPW19.25, a RAPD marker explained 43% of total variation and OPM20.23 explained 22% of total variation. These results revealed that two loci had major effect in respect to carpel number and other loci had a minor effect. This research revealed significant clues about genetic mechanism of carpel number in mandarin fruit. These markers should be further investigated for applicability and conversion to more specific markers such as SCAR and CAP. This was the first report of the genetic mechanism and molecular markers associated with carpel number in citrus.

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GULSEN O., UZUN A., CANAN I. 2016, GENETIC ANALYSIS OF QTLs CONTROLLING CARPEL NUMBER IN CITRUS. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 80-82.

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GENETIC CONTROL OF GRAIN SIZE AND WEIGHT IN WHEAT–WHERE ARE WE NOW?

Published in Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX
Written by Daniel CRISTINA, Matilda CIUCA, Petruta Calina CORNEA

Wheat is one of the world’s most important food sources, alongside with rice and maize, directly providing about 50% of human food calories. By 2020, it is estimated that the global demand for wheat will increase by a further 40%, due to the increasing world population. Therefore, higher yield is one of the most important goals in wheat breeding. Larger grains not only directly relate to grain yield but also have favorable effects on seedling vigour and early growth, thereby promoting and stabilizing yielding ability. Large grain size has been an important trait and it is usually measured in plant breeding practice by one thousand grain weight (TGW), mainly determined by grain width (GW), grain length (GL) and grain thickness (GT), but also by grain shape and density. Milling and baking quality is also influenced by grain size and shape. Geometrical models indicated that changes in grain shape and size could result in increases in flour yield of up to 5%. Test weight (volumetric weight), a trait largely used in commercial transactions with wheat, also depends on grain size and shape - larger grains, deviating from spherical shape having lower test weight. Grain size in wheat is a complex character and any information on its genetic control is useful for increasing breeding efficiency. Identifying molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling seed size would facilitate selection in early generations and may contribute to improved yield and end-use quality in wheat by accumulating such loci into elite backgrounds. Grain size in wheat is a quantitative trait controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL), and numerous QTLs for grain size have been reported. Previous research showed important QTLs on all chromosomes, but most significant QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1B, 1D, 2A, 2B, 2D, 3A, 3B, 3D, 4B, 4D, 5A, 5B, 5D, 6A, 6B, 6D, 7A, 7B, 7D. Grain size is negatively correlated with grain number, mainly due to competition for available assimilates. Alleviating this correlation should be facilitated by a more detailed knowledge of grain size genetic control. In this mini-review we will focus on the latest information about the QTLs and genes involved in genetic control of wheat grain size and weight, and the best molecular markers associated with these traits.

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CRISTINA D., CIUCA M., CORNEA P.C. 2016, GENETIC CONTROL OF GRAIN SIZE AND WEIGHT IN WHEAT–WHERE ARE WE NOW?. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, Vol. XX, ISSN 2285-1364, 27-34.

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